Did Bill Gates steal the GUI concept from Steve Jobs?
Yes he did. Here is the story of what actually happened told directly to me by the two men who are the experts on the subject. This story has been mistold for decades and people who are allegedly experts are still repeating the same inaccuracies. There are many quotes floating around the Interneting from movies and books that tell the story second or even third hand and they do not bother to get the entire story. What I illuminate here is what the vast majority of those reports conveniently leave out. Where did the GUIe from? Jef Raskin and Doug Engelbart both told me directly their part of the GUI mouse and Macintosh story and everything below I got directly from them either in person or in direct person-to -person email many years ago so without any media involved I know this to be absolutely . (Doug and I were members of the same education foundation so he sat next to me every month and we would chat endlessly about this stuff.) The very first (GUI) personalputer that you could actually walk into a store and buy set up in your home and do something productive with it was the Apple Lisa (quickly to be replaced by the Macintosh). Before that there were no products that had a GUI. So if we go by what the US Government uses as the yardstick in patent disputes to determine the winner then Apple wins. If you go by who first conceived italic some sort of interactive on a human interface (that we now call hyper Display PDF and a GUI) then we can credit the 1941 short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges toiled El jarduedn de senderos que se bifurcan italic and it was definitely not Xerox. Jef Raskin the Father Of The Macintosh italic told me that he wrote his thesis titled A Hardware-Independent Computer Drawing System Using List-Structured Modeling The Quick-Draw Graphics System Pennsylvania State University 1967 italic which preceded the founding of Xerox PARC by three years so again it did note from Xerox. The Quick-Draw Graphics System not only described what was later to be called Quickdraw in the Macintosh operating system; it described how to make a personalputer with a graphical user interface a feat that had never been done before. 1 So if we go by who did the first public technical documentation of a GUI then the winner is Jef Raskin who beat Xerox by years and Xerox never did document it anyway. Jef went on to use his design in the Macintosh which actually made it to market and you could actually buy it so Jef and the Macintosh still are the winner not Xerox. 1 Doug Engelbart presented The Mother Of All Demos italic in 1968 showing a live audience a workingputer with a GUI and a mouse (the mouse allowed the GUI to make sense to the user) so if we go by the first public demonstration of a GUI then Doug wins (with thousands of humans who witnessed it live in person) this demo preceded the founding of Xerox PARC by two years so once again Xerox had nothing to do with it. Doug demo was mind-blowing impressing all of us but as he told me theputer was large too impractical to place on a desk and it was never sold to anyone. 1 Apple and Xerox Apple paid Xerox US$1 for an unlimited license for all Xerox technology. 1 Xerox PARC was a think tank and the way they made money was to think of ideas that would attractpanies to pay for a license to see these concepts and protos. The only way to get in to see anything was to pay the fee and be a customer. Apple paid the fee and was a customer and this is how Steve Jobs got past security and got into the top secret rooms to see anything at all. Steve saw that Xerox also had aputer with a GUI which Apple already had as a proto but thisputer used a mouse and Apple was using a light pen which Steve Jobs hated. When Steve saw the mouse he was ecstatic because that is exactly what he wanted for the Lisa Steve went and got his staff and brought them to Xerox to show them The Mouse . They already had their own GUI proto in place so when they asked if the mouse was covered by the Xerox license Xerox had to admit the mouse actually came from Stanford AI (another think tank) that was literally up the road (at Stanford University) and that Xerox had nothing to do with the mouse. 1 This moment is the one that everyone misquotes badly. Yes Steve Jobs did bring his staff to Xerox to see something that excited him and he brought them there during his second trip to show them The Mouse. That is the moment that everyone gets wrong since the GUI was already protod at Apple. It was the mouse that the movies and the books mistook for the excitement that Steve showed nothing more. If you look at the Xerox PARC proto and thenpare it with the actual realization of the Macintosh then you will see that they share nothing inmon other than both being a GUI. The Mac design was as different as different can be. Macs are modal where Xerox was amodal. Macs are linear and logical where Xerox was obfuscated in mystery because the average person could not see where they were supposed to click to do anything so the functionality was aplete mystery. Mac design is very simple and consistently reliable for a person to find any function that is needed at any time. The two systems could not be any more different if they had tried. Obviously neither one was a copy of the other and yet there are still misquotes and misattributions about what Steve was actually excited about when he was legally visiting Xerox. 2 Therefore Apple did not ever steal anything from Xerox and they could not steal anything anyway since they had a paid license for everything anyway. 1 Doug Engelbart and The Mouse Apple went to Stanford AI and paid US$1 for a perpetual license for theputer mouse. 1 Apple is the onlypany in history to this day to have ever actually paid for a license for the mouse. 2 Theputer mouse was patented by Doug Engelbart and Stanford AI. 2 All otherpanies who use the mouse including Xerox did so illegally and are still doing so illegally to this day. 2 Doug told me in person that he was greatly saddened that The Mouse italic was stolen by all of thepanies in theputer business and for its part Stanford AI did not get any public credit by the media. I brought up that Apple did pay for the license and that it was Apple that made the mouse a household name so that now theputer mouse would be famous forever and he perked right up smiled at me (to be honest it was the first time I ever saw him smile) and after that we were buds. We always sat next to each other at the educational conference and he would tolerate my endless questions about the real history of theputer industry. I assume because he saw that I respected him and his amazing aplishments. May you rest in peace Doug; I miss you. 2 Doug did tell me in person that Steve Jobs flipped out over The Mouse italic because his team already had the GUI developed and they were using a light pen (which IIRC was integrated into the proto by a woman who I once met but I am sorry that I forgot her name. She either integrated it or she had used it on the proto. I just don't remember because we were at an event where I was super busy and did not think to give her my business card to stay in touch which I have regretted ever since) and The Mouse italic actually made sense to Steve which is why he jumped at the opportunity to pay Stanford University for the Stanford AI license fee that included The Mouse. italic 2 Xerox PARC stole the mouse from Stanford which I verified with Doug so Xerox did not ever invent a plete system italic and Xerox PARC was not a manufacturing organization only a think tank so Xerox did not ever bring anything to market and they did not invent aplete solution that could be stolen. 2 Summary -Sub Plot So far Jef Raskin and Doug Engelbart where the key technology contributors that supported Apple legitimate and legal creation of what led to the Macintosh. It was unique and was the first personalputer desktopputer that you could actually go buy and set up on your own at home and use productivity software that the averageputer user could actually do something with and produce a useful deliverable. By all corporate and US legal standards that makes Apple the first to invent and deliver a personalputer with a GUI to market. 1 Bill Gates Steve Jobs was going nuts over the Lisa When the Lisa failed to sell in significant numbers (apparently due to its astronomical price tag) Steve then saw that Jef Raskin was correct that a lower powered but fully functional personalputer with a GUI would be more appropriate for the market at that time and he gave Jef a lot more leeway to create the Macintosh. 1 One of the keys to success was to get software developers to start creating software right away for the new platform so Steve Jobs visited Bill Gates and convinced Bill to have Microsoft to start writing Macintosh software immediately. 1 Jobs gave Gates all of the Macintosh source code so that Microsoft could get started right away. 1 Microsoft Word for Macintosh was released in 1985. 1 Word for Mac was Microsoft first WYSIWYG word processor and although Word as a program had already been around for years on DOS it was crude. The Mac version was the initial modern version that was then back ported to Windows. 2 Bill gave his team instructions to use the Macintosh source code to develop Microsoft Windows. 1 Microsoft never had permission to use the Macintosh source code for anything other than developing software applications for the Macintosh user market ergo Bill Gates stole the GUI concept from Steve Jobs. 2 After years and the failure of the Look & Feel lawsuit to help Apple Bill Gates once said that they should not have given me the source code if they didn want me to use it in admission that he stole the source code for the Macintosh to create Windows (i.e. he had the source code legally and he used it to create Windows illegally and immorally). 2 Anothermon untruth that has been repeated is that Steve Jobs and Bill Gates collaborated on Windows and that Jobs somehow intentionally gave Bill the source code so Microsoft could build Windows. Not only is that un but Steve asked Bill to shut down Windows and when Bill refused Steve took him to court and sued him for theft in the infamous Look & Feel italic lawsuit. If Steve did not want Microsoft to do Windows then he would not have spent all that money to launch a very public lawsuit. 1 Andy Hertzfeld a famous Apple employee who was the core member of the Macintosh development team noticed that his contact who was working with Microsoft was asking too many questions about Macintosh and its functioning so he alerted Steve that Microsoft was in the process of stealing the Mac. If Steve had given Microsoft permission to copy Macintosh then Andy would not have had to raise the alarm to notify Steve of the theft in progress. 1 After the fact Bill Gates attempted to cover his tracks by stating publicly that both he and Steve stole from Xerox but of course that is a total fabrication. Bill did not steal from Xerox; he stole the Windows GUI from the Mac GUI that he had in hand. Bill Gates eventually admits the theft when he says that they should not have given me the source code if they didn want me to use it a clear and positive admission of his guilt (about the theft oft he GUI from the Macintosh source code). 1 Conclusion Bill Gates did steal the Macintosh GUI to make the Windows GUI. If we had enacted the DMCA law back then it would have been easy for Apple to win the lawsuit against Microsoft but at the time the law in the US was very weak in protecting software works and those s of lawsuits rarely resulted in a win (today the opposite is where patent trolls try to extort money from Apple IBM et al for vague patent infringements but they occasionally win significant amounts of money because the rules are poorly worded and the trolls figured out how to use those protections in a predatory manner). Postscript The first micrputer italic was invented by a team led by Bill Pentz at Sacramento State University italic in 1972. It was called the Sac State 88. This is another factoid that ismonly mis all the time. It was not the Altair nor Xerox Alto nor the Xerox Star as the proponents are apt to repeat incorrectly so that part of their claimed story is alsopletely .
What are some lesser known but useful websites?
#1. A Letter To A Mature You. Usually it's the future that will reflect back to the present. But here they decided to flip that around. A mail or letter from the best person you know is exactly the best thing to receive these days. Yes you can receive a letter from past self. Try writing a letter to your future self today itself and send your future self some words of inspiration. Or just share some thoughts on where you'll or what you'll be up to in a year three ? And then they'll do some time travel magic and deliver the letter to you. You will find how you changed in this few years. It will be one of the best things you will receive in your entire life. Write a letter to the future s #2. The Actual Scenario In Space Ever wondered how tiny you are in this vast universe or how fast or slow you will move at the speed of light or how would the things look at space to you even when you are travelling at the speed of light. It's indeed hard to imagine how mind-bogglingly vast even our solar system. Which is really only a tiny tiny part of the galaxy which is itself only a tiny part. If the Moon Were Only 1 Pixel is a project by interactive media designer Josh Worth that attempts to accurately portray just how distant the Sun and planets are from each other using a single pixel to represent the Earth moon which has an actual diameter of 3474.8 kilometres for scale. Worth was inspired to work on the project after trying to ex the same concept to his young daughter. If the moon were equal to 1 pixel it'd take 17 minutes to scroll through the solar system. italic If the Moon Were Only 1 Pixel #3. 1 Minute Disposable Mail Id Want a disposable mail Id for you don't want to get spammed by various services you register yourself. Don have time to make a new email id everytime? Try disposable email which destroys itself after 1mins 1 Minute Mail - Temporary E-Mail s #4. The Death Clock Maybe this will make you realize how precious is every moment and how life is slipping away... second by second. Like the hourglass of the Net the Death Clock will remind you just how short life is. Check out how many seconds of your life is remaining! When Am I Going To Die? #5. Pixel Thoughts A 6-second meditation tool to help clear your mind. Tell here what's bothering you? Get relaxed and watch your thought. It will make you realize that life is much grander than the thought which bothering you. #6. The Last things you got Finally something's on the internet which will not let you starve anymore. Enter all the ingredients available in your fridge or kitchen you will get awesome recipes. Comes handy when nobody's home. MyFridgeFood - Home Supercook recipe search by ingredients you have at home #7. Quick Draw! Okay that's fun. A game where a neural net tries to guess what you're drawing. Interesting !!! Quick Draw! s #8. Windows 93 It looks a lot like a more primitive and meme-filled edition of Windows 95except instead of Solitaire and Internet Explorer you've got Solitude and Cat Explorer. There's also a highly improved version of MS Paint called Piskel and a hallucinatory program called Acid Box 93. That's just to name a few. Could Windows 93 be your full-time operating system? That depends Do you like drugs? If yes you might enjoy spending your day navigating the 9s-talgic world of pixelated art. If no you'll still enjoy the full-length version of Star Wars rendered in ASCII. And drugs or no drugs if you figure out what Virtual Girl does please let me know in thements. Okay this is not so useful website but definitely awesome one. italic WINDOWS93 #9. An Expert Mathematician Perfect tool to understand and solve mathsplexity. Mathway Select a subject such as Algebra Trigonometry Finite Math Chemistry Pre-Calculus Enter your question and select how mathway should answer you. And you can also check the steps how? Mathway | Math Problem Solver s #1. Is it Really Down Right Now? Ever happened something like a website stopped working only because you opened it? Sounds funny but one time or other we all felt the same way as the server goes down only when the most important work to do is to open the goddamn site toplete your research work or book your tickets. Now you can check whether it's down for everyone or especially for you because you know stopping you from doing your work is the first task for the officials. Is It Down Right Now? Website Down or Not? #11. The Software Next Door. Alternative-To is a new approach to finding good software. This site is extremely useful when you are looking for alternatives of software. Just put the name of the programme It will list some popular alternatives to your current choice of software. AlternativeTo - Crowdsourced software rmendations #12. Gravity Points Click anywhere to create a mass. Click near to it and the two will attract each other and merge to form a single mass and go on having fun with gravity. Gravity Points s There are countless sites on the Web that serve some kind of purpose. They serve important information but what about those sites that seem to have absolutely no point or any useful capability? Nevertheless we visit these websites although they are totally useless crazy weird or pointless. EDIT italic Have a look on two of my similar answers Kiranmoy Samanta's answer to What is the weirdest website on the internet? answer aid 4161277 Kiranmoy Samanta's answer to What is the most interesting website that you found on the internet? answer aid 5562747 Internet is a crazy place. Isn It ? Your Thought italic
I am currently developing a social media strategy for my company. Are there any factors I should take into consideration while devising a strategy?
The most important point to consider when devising your strategy is your audience. Current customers - are you wanting to engage them? increase LTV? Prospects - are you wanting to drive new customers to your business? Do they look like your current customers? Are you targeting a new audience? Nurturing - most visitors to your website won be ready to buy is nurturing part of your strategy? Not all your customers may be alike. This is why it is so important to map out the following ives Sales cycle Manypanies jump in with strategy before fully understanding their objectives. Unless your objectives are ed to your business plan then your strategy won be successful. You should have buy in from all the key stakeholders in your business about the social media objectives. They need to be SMART and you need to have got the measurable element nailed before youmit to them. Personas #axzz4Ci9J9Sv7 cannot be missed out when you are developing your strategy. You need to build these up for each of your target audiences. Personas really help you to understand their motivations. This will help you build content that speaks to their needs rather than your objectives. You will initially build personas through assumptions. It is a great idea to then go out and test them. What is happening onpetitor pages? What content engages with your personas? What channels are they using? I really like the TALKING model for understand persona behaviour on social. Social media is often about sales. It might not be in your case but it is normally helpful to understand the sales cycle in planning your social media strategy. If you know about your customer pain points their buying triggers and where you are loosing them in the sales cycle your social media strategy can be build to respond. Even if your social media strategy isn about sales conversion it is useful to understand your sales cycle and where your social audience is likely to sit within it. This again will help you to shape the content according to their needs. Reporting #axzz4Ci9J9Sv7 is so important. If you don understand what is and isn successful you have no hope of your strategy being a long-term success. Many of the other answers echoed this point and they were absolutely right to do so. You don need to be a data whizz but you need to make sure that you can track all of you activities in an easy and manageable way for you. This might be setting up Google Analytics properly or investing in a social dashboard that gives you decent social analytics.