Where can I get the JEE past year online exam questions in the form of a book PDF?
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Where can I find old journals and studies on PDF?
Many journals have been collected in what the library-world calls databases. These oftene with charges. JSTOR s offers access to old journals. Some are open to online viewing but many are behind a paywall. s s will often to items when they have a pdf available - because the author has made it available or it is available online. You best bet would be to visit your nearest Academic Library who would have paid access to a number of journal databases. You should look up the university library website to see if what you want is available first. Often academic libraries have a license that lets them provide limited access to the general public. If your local academic library does not have access to the paper you want you may be able to request a document delivery. This usually costs some money but not as much as buying the article outright. Public libraries usually have some access to journal articles but of a more general nature than academic libraries do. But sometimes you can luck out and get what you need. It only when they graduate from university that studentse to realize the amazing treasure they have available to them in the library. What Ive been able to read because I have a student card is easily worth the cost of tuition.
How does inserting a picture of your signature in an online form or PDF file add any authority to the document? Anyone can copy/paste a file so there is no proof of who placed the signature.
Frankly it alles down to testimony. If someone can testify that yes that document was authorized it will be valid. If someone testifies that no I never intended for it to be signed then that brings up a question. It not significantly different from authenticating a wet signature which can be forged - but forgery is simply *way* easier in today electronic age. And yes as an attorney the easy acceptance of electronic documents though certainly handy has been troubling to me for years.
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Are Orthodox Jews allowed to smoke?
Among Satmar Hasidic Jews women never smoke. It really unheard of. But quitemon for men even though it officially frowned upon. Smoking is seen as deviant and often a way men try to be cool but it not the kind of transgression that can push someone out of the fold. The reason Hasidic men often smoke probably goes back to tabik or tobacco. Hasidic rabbis famously thought favorably of tobacco and often smoked it themselves. For example Shivhei Habesht 3 the legendary biography of the Baal Shem Tov refers to the famous lulke 4 which the founder of the hasidic movement used to smoke. While recent scholarship 5 tends to treat this work with less skepticism than did earlier scholars even if all references to the Baal Shem Tov smoking tobacco 6 are fabrications it is that hasidim were known to smoke for their early opponents the mitnagedim repeatedly castigated them for wasting time on smoking which the hasidim believed prepared them for prayer. citation target s title Tobacco and the Hasidim - Friends of Louis Jacobs index 1 unique_id mQLKg As you can see the early Hasidim not only didn reject tobacco but believed it prepared them for prayer! I grew up in the US in the 8s in a Hasidic family and by then it was well known that smoking wasn a-okay. It was no longer a part of Hasidic life the way coffee is. Even with cigarettes now seen as a vice there were remnants of earlier embrace of tobacco. I remember that people still had tabik pishkelech italic which were Snuff Boxes. Here are some antique Jewish samples Here is a rabbi sniffing tobacco In the book Crossing the Williamsburg Bridge which is about a little American Jewish boy who lived with his Hungarian Hasidic grandfather in Williamsburg in the 195s the author describes getting curious about the tabik that all the Hasidim carried around. He asked to try. He was offered a snuff by one of the men in the synagogue and when the tobacco hit him he responded in such shock all the adults had a good laugh. (this was long ago even before Mad Men parenting days.) I don know that Hasidic men really carry tobacco anymore except maybe on fast days when you are allowed to smell it. It helps ease the hunger pangs. It helps with fasting. In spite of some objections snuff-taking was permitted at any timeSabbaths holy days fast-days and Yom Kippur citation target title TOBACCO - index 2 unique_id mmFTN On the Yiddish forum Ivelt in a discussion in 213 about preparation for a Jewish fast someone wrote u5du5d5u5df u5dcu5du5deu5d9u5e8 u5dcu5d5u5d9u5e4u5df u5e7u5d5u5d9u5e4u5df u5d8u5du5d1u5d9u5e7! Let run and buy tobacco! horizontal-rule What does the permissiveness vis a vis tobacco in pipe or snuff box mean for men smoking? Well once upon a time back in der heim italic in Europe before the war cigerattes made their way into Jewish shtetl life. When we were Hasidic kids I knew this Yiddish song called koyft zshe papirosen which means buy cigarettes. s Buy cigarettes Dry and from not ruined Buy very cheap Buy and have mercy Save me from hunger now. Buy matches that are old With it you will nourish an orphan For naught is my screaming and my running No one wants to buy from me I will perish like a dog Here is an ad from Warsaw Poland in Hebrew where a Chaim Leib Shpitsz advertises that over the last five years cigarettes in his factory substantially improved. Obviously the papirussen italic and tabik italic made its way to Americhke with our immigrant grandparents albeit not for all of them. And while in America it became increasingly problematic as its health consequences were understood relics remain. horizontal-rule Here is a Hasidic rabbi lighting another smoke. Although not amon sight I found it on the Ivelt thread on smoking. All the men there drool as they speak of their next tsigeretl italic . horizontal-rule Last I heard (a few years ago) the tradition is still that when a boy gets engaged at about age eighteen he goes to his yeshiva and to celebrate and share his mazel tov with his friends he hands out pens and cigarettes. The cigeratte is called a u5d7u5eau5df u5e6u5d9u5d2u5e8u5e2u5d8u5dc A groom cigarette italic . Im not sure if the majority people even light it or just throw it out. Of course there are those who smoke it or their own packs. Young men of marriageable age who want to look cool and be rebellious will often take up smoking. When I was a still a kid my oldest brother came home one day with his long Hasidic coat drenched in the smell of smoke. We were all sent to our rooms. I remember how terrified I was of what was toe next fearing my brother was on the road to self destruction. I worried that this was the beginning of his downward slide from smoking to a small yarmulke to trimmed sidecs to a downward slide into an unrecognizable brother. I was so relieved when he soon got engaged and didn smoke again. I recently asked a Hasidic restaurateur who was smoking outside his shop why he smokes. Why I smoke? You know because I can stop. Why did you start? He knows Im ex-Hasidic so he nodded like it was obvious. I was a bochur italic nu. Meaning he was a young boy of marriageable age. He might have started as a small act of rebellion but those things from our youths follow you and now he grown and Im sure hoping his kids won do the same. horizontal-rule So Hasidim are more lax about smoking than about many many other things. And often when that the case you can often look into its history and see that long ago a seed was sown that made it okay. And once it starts to flow in the cultural veins it much harder to remove.