Which citation management software should I use (Mendeley, Papers, Zotero, Endnote) for law review articles and the occasional economics article?
They save your time in the long run. If you going to write just one or two papers you might not need to worry about them. But if you are going to working as academics for a longer time it is wise to invest in one these tools. As to the choice of the tools don think that it is a simple decision. You should carefully investigate which of them serve your purpose. Every one of them have their strengths and weaknesses. I have tried all the 4 reference managers you have mentioned. All of them does the job of you mentioned very well. But as you use them more and more you needs grow and change. MENDELEY I have followed this tool since its beta state around 28. It is fairly good tool. The major advantage of it is has social networking; good searching tools; can rename PDF files automatically; can also work with Latex. Indeed from all the 4 it is the best fit with the Latex system. The reference entries have no attachment anymore. It gets its reference data from Google Scholar. It is a hit and miss and the metadata extraction is just useless. If you want to learn about its weaknesses check their support page there are a lot of weaknesses to it. One of the most annoying problem was every time I move around the library the between the reference and the PDF gets lost. Endnote and Zotero these are matured products. Zotero is open; has vibrantmunity. Personally I don stick with them because they are terrible with Latex. Sente PDF reading at its best the annotation system in this reader is heavenly. But you better skip this because its development seems you are going to use the tool for a longer time my rmendation is either Zotero or Bookends. If you are looking for a simple task for a shorter time still Zotero. ordered-list If you are using Windows Qiqq seems one of the top tools for reference management and information structuring Mendeley vs Citavi vs Qiqq (also Sente and Bookends) s
How do I combine PDF files in a Mac Adobe Reader?
You can. However you can open all files at once in Preview select them all and export as PDF. Drag files in the thumbnail view to organize the file order.
Sounds like a question from the OS wars. To some extent it is. I will give you my personal opinion based on 25 years in IT. I have started with 8bitputers with BASIC went through MS DOS first versions of Windows Unix System V Solaris AIX HP-UX. At home I was running Linux since the early days. For 5 years I had a chance in working in apany where we have been developing software entirely on Linux. I waspiling my OS every night (using Gentoo for most of the time). Overall uX of systems got my attention and love. But at some point I was a bit tired of configuring my XOrg server for dual display fixing issues in printer drivers and network card drivers. There it came Mac OS X - everything great from the uX worldbined with flawless usage of peripherals great UI consistent with every next version (not line MS Windows after Windows 7) unix experience with great terminals (I use iTerm with ZSH and VIM as main editor) almost everything that I develop on Mac - works the same way on Linux From personal observation - MacOSX can be used from both IT Professionals and from people who do not have idea whatputers do. Many people will say that it is a closed proprietary OS running only on expensive hardware. For me - I would say that with MacOSX I feel free - to develop both for iOS and Android Linux Docker even Windows and to have the full unix toolset that I need. PS Recently Linux distributions have grown a lot - there are so few issues from the past. Microsoft have also started integrating linux toolset and unix like shells. But once running on MacOS X - rarely someone goes back.
What is the best tool to organize scientific papers?
Here is my experience in using software to organise scientific publications. I use for a few months. Previously I used Mendeley Paperpile and Google Spreadsheet . They have nice functionality but also some nuances. Justin mentioned the Endnote but I did not like at all. Guys above already mentioned these. Zotero is nice but I prefer reusing knowledge that was extracted by others. BibDesk became recently unusable. Although it is an open source so you can improve it yourself. PDFs are too annoying. I had piles of them on my hard drive. Tree-like structuring of files is not good. I like the graph-like or mindmap-like distribution of cross-s. From last summer I use BioMindmap to organise scientific proofs for the topics I am interested as a researcher. (I am not a lab researcher but a -researcher I would say.) Pros Free software. Citations are color-coded Scorecard that shows the validity of proofs Automatically fetches publication meta author year etc When you submitted enough you are approved to add more without premoderation queue. As it is collaborated tool someone can change your entries (as in wikipedia) if the user is reputable. Maybe this is not expected. Mostly PubMed is considered a good source. But there are about 1 other domains that are ok too. Check FAQ on the website. ordered-list
How difficult is it to code a simple word processor?
I wrote my first word processor over 4 years ago. It was 1976. I had recently finished my master degree inputer science and had started a new job in California for an R&D lab associated with Bell Canada. The year before I had purchased (as a kit) an early personalputer called a Sphere 1 s This mightyputer had all of 2KB of RAM and a Motorola 68 processor running at 1 MHz. It was apetitor to the Altair 88 s and was unique among the early PC (before the Apple ) to have an integrated keyboard. Because there was no front panel with lights and switches like other earlyputers it had a monitor program in EPROM called the Programmer Development System (PDS) which included a small editor a mini-assembler debugger and some other utilities. There were no hard drives or even floppy disks just a cassette tape interface for I (similar to the first Apple s). I was unhappy with the editor having worked with a CRT-based editor on Unix called the RAND Editor s which I thought had a much better user interface. So I wrote my own in 68 assembly and burned it into a new set of EPROMs. I called it PIE P DS I mproved E ditor. I announced my project in the Sphere user group newsletter. So just writing a fairly simple editor? Not so hard a couple thousand lines of assembly code. There was a software publishing house in LA called Programma International s . They contacted me and asked if they could market my program for the Sphere which they did. PIE became the P rogramma I nternational E ditor. Meanwhile I continued to develop software for the Sphere. I decided to turn it into a word processor by writing a formatter based on the Unix program nroff s . My FORMAT program was not a WYSIWYG s as most later word processors would be; rather it used macros within the like nroff that eventually became its downfall. (It did have a print preview similar to WordPerfect prior to version 6.). The formatter was several hundred lines of high-level code (a subset of PL by that time I had written apiler answer aid 1579179 for myputer). It initially fit into 2 KB of memory on the Sphere-1. It was now mid 1977. Dave Gordon now the president of Programma International called me up and said there a newputering out called the Apple s and I need to get my software running on it ASAP. He said it was going to be big (in that he was right). They bought me an early one serial #28 as I remember (several years ago I donated it to a museum). It didn even have disks yet just a cassette interface like my Sphere. I started rewriting my software for the Apple . The program was renamed Apple PIE (that was a no-brainer). In 1978 disk drives appeared and I rewrote the program again to use make use of them. 8-column cards appeared (the initial Apple s were only 4 column). Unfortunately each one was different and required special coding. Now were definitely up in the several thousand lines of code the program used up all of the Apple s 48 KB memory. Within a couple of years I had quit my full-time job and was working full-time on the word processor. My program and a chess program were the top selling programs at Programma and Hayden Software bought thepany. You can still read the manual on-line here s . (Click the edge pages to turn them. You can see my name at the top of the second page.) BTW I wrote that entire manual myself using PIE Writer sending output to Hayden Books photo-setter instead of a printer. By this point the program could do proportional spacing for daisy-wheel printers like the Diablo 63 s so I made a special version of the program just for myself that generated codes for the photosetter. So I had all the code to do proportional spacing but I was not displaying characters on the screen as graphics in WYSIWYG format that would have taken a lot more work building my own bit-mapped fonts etc. PIE Writer was never the best-selling word processor for the Apple (that belonged to Apple own program Apple Writer) but it had the best reviews. It was sold inputer stores like The Byte Shop and even major retailers. When the IBM PC came out in 1981 Hayden bought me one of the first models and had me convert the program over to it. It was put on several other systems as well. By this point I was making ten times more in royalties than my previous full-time job. (See Tom Crosley's answer to What have you received a royalty from? answer aid 94211567 ) Alas when apeting program for the IBM PC called WordStar s came out which did feature WYSIWYG editing followed by the Apple Macintosh s in 1984 this spelled the death of my program. I been told that several books were written using my software and in fact got to meet some of the authors when they needed support. However because of my experience writing PIE Writer I got hired to write a Mac Write clone for a SPARC workstation in 1986 which was to have WYSIWYG editing. Theputer did have routines to write bit-mapped characters to the screen so I didn have to code that from scratch. I wrote the word processor in C++ a new language for me at the time which was an interesting experience (learning on the job). As I remember that took me five or six months toplete. Now if I want to write program that needs a word processor as part of its functionality I use a library like TX Text s . You can put together a functional word processor that creates and edits MS Word or PDF documents in literally minutes and then add whatever special features you need for your own application. (Not cheap though the least expensive developer license is over $11 but a great product IMO).
How is Adobe reader better than the default Preview app in OS X?
In My Mac Book Air I never used Adobe Reader because preview does many jobs easier. Some of them I listed below I can directly add my Signature into a PDF or any scribbling directly on a PDF I can drag and drop pages from one file to another file. Copy Paste can work between Macs and iDevices. (Copy in Mac and Paste in your iPhone) I can open any file from my Mail Account and add or scribble right away and send it or forward it directly without a need of any other software. In case if you want to rotate a page you can just use two fingers in your track pad and rotate the page gets rotated. you can duplicate a file just from the file menu and rename it to anything you want Preview works not only for PDF it works for any files.. that a Mac can understand. And there are lot other options as well. The above said options are not present in Adobe Reader (So I don't use it).
How was the PDF format created?
I was there for the whole thing. It was the 9's and Adobe was doing well. In addition to the Systems department which handled the Postscript business there was an Applications group which had Photoshop and Illustrator. John Warnock had the idea that every document that was ever printed or ever would be printed could be represented in a document. This was not an unreasonable idea since Postscript was designed for this purpose and Adobe also had some code from Illustrator that would handle the fonts and graphics and code from Photoshop to display s - this would be the second file format for the project. However there were requirements that were not being met. Requirements like forward and backwardspatibility streaming large documents through a printer driver where the printer driver has no idea how many pages there will be and opening a 1 page document and being able to jump directly to the 5th page without reading the whole file. Peter Hibberd had written a demo of an 'object oriented file format' so Richard Cohn and Alan Wootton went to work trying to adapt his work for use on the Carousel project. After many weeks of struggle it was decided that adapting his work was going to be more work than writing new code and that some of the 'object oriented' concepts were not applicable since it was finally bing obvious that a key-value format was going to be part of the solution. This was the third file format. Bob Wulff the manager of the project told Richard and Alan to 'go away' and to note back until there was a file format! The next Monday Richard and Alan started meeting at Richard's house in Menlo Park instead of going to work in Mountain View (where Google is now). By the end of Thursday Richard and Alan had described data structures and concepts for a file format on many pieces of paper. Alan went home pulled 4 overnights in a row and came back to Adobe on Monday with the fourth file format written and working in the current code. This file format became known as PDF.
How Should Adobe Bridge Be Used?
It should be used in conjunction with the other Adobe Products as it already has a built in list of file associations (.psd files open in Photoshop etc). It has marvellous batch-renaming tools; can show you the files in a group of folders AT THE SAME TIME; allows previews of all Adobe file s (including flipping through the pages of a PDF). TIP Make sure you build a 'cache' ofmon folders using the Tools menu. I could (and have in many classes) raved on about its amazing abilities - including Smart Collections. Use it!
What are some cool WhatsApp tricks?
15 Secret Whatsapp Features you should Know. It's no wonder that in recent years WhatsApp became a huge part of our lives. I have collected 15 Secret Whatsapp Features you probably have never heard about did You know how to find out the exact time someone read your message read the article and learn all these amazing features. 1. Find out the exact time someone has read your this magical feature works for both Android and iOS devices . All you have to do was just hold on any of your messages you're interested in and choose info there. You'll see the time your message was sent and also the time. It was read and yes you can control the last one by the secret reading we told you about earlier. Well I guess now you'll probably use your WhatsApp and a whole other way. Won't you which one of these features? Did you like the most did you know about some of them? 2. Disable previews . Originally WhatsApp sends notifications with the content of the message and all of us probably know some curious people. Who gets really interested to see who sends you what plus they can easily see the of the message on a preview. Whatsapp thought about that and allowed its users to disable those little previews to do so you have to go to settings click notifications And there you'll see the option disable show preview now. You don't have to worry about someone reading your personal and private chats. 3. Secretly reading messages . Not everyone knows that you can actually read your WhatsApp messages without its tick turning blue to be able to do so you have to follow a couple of simple steps first of all when you receive a message don't open it right away and dismiss all the Notifications then set your phone on airline mode that will turn your Wi-Fi or internet connection off. After that just open your app and read the voila now nobody will know that you've already seen this message. Sometimes this can be quite helpful right you can also turn the turning blue ticks offpletely by selecting settings then account in privacy. There you'll find an option to read receipts off. 4. Star the messages. At times on WhatsApp you get some messages that you want a bookmark or save for later. It can be some important information or just a funny that lights up your mood every time you see it so for iOS users. There is a simple solution just double tap on a message and select the star icon. You can later find it in the contact info where you'll have an option called starred messages. You can also go back to the exact moment when this message was sent by tapping on the arrow next to the . 5. Send a Giant beating heart. If you want to express your feelings for someone in a whole other dimension. Just send a red heart alone without any other emojis or words you may think it's nothing much But amazingly enough it turns into a big beating heart. It's always nice to receive such cute messages now You know how to make your loved one's day? 6. Back Your Chat messages. If you like to read old messages and get nostalgic from time to time. You can always back your history up on iCloud For iPhone users or Google Drive for Android. If you have an iPhone And you want to back up a certain chat just click on its name then on the name of the contact and you'll see an option email conversion . For those who prefer Android go to settings select chats and calls and then click on chat back up there you go now. You'll have access to any of your old s. 7. Send your messages using Siri. Some iPhone users probably are already aware of this. But for those of you who don't know you can send WhatsApp messages just by using Siri on your device just say hey Siri Send a WhatsApp to and name the contact needed then you'll be able to add the content of your message. We're all feeling a little bit lazy sometimes so it's a rather convenient feature don't you think? 8. Add a chat to your home screen. If you're ing somebody pretty much all day or have a favourite chat that you need quick access to. You can easily add a to it in your home screen this works for Android devices. All you need to do is tap and hold on a chat and then click on three vertical dots on the top right of your screen and choose to add conversation shortcut. That way you won't have to go through all your chats to find the one you need it will be right on your home screen. dates to the calendar. If you a certain date in your message it will appear as a hyper if you tap on it. You'll be given an option to create an event in your calendar. So you can simply plan some adventures with your friends work meetings or any other important events right from your WhatsApp to be able to? Use this feature you have to write a day of the week as well for example Monday. One sadly this works only on iOS devices . 1. Stop Auto Saving. As you probably already know WhatsApp automatically saves every picture and video that are sent to you. So if you're sick and tired of constantly deleting unnecessary photos that your contacts message you can turn the auto-saving off. Again go to settings then select chats and turn off save iing media. Seriously. What can you not find in settings? 11. Making Personal Information Private Sometimes. We use WhatsApp to talk to people we barely know for example work contacts are people from some dating websites that we want to Get to know better and it's not that safe to make your personal information available for everyone to see. Thankfully WhatsApp foresaw that go to settings then click account and select privacy here you can control What users will see your profile picture status and last time you were seen on WhatsApp? I don't know about you but this makes me feel much morefortable. 12. Muting Group Chats. If there is some group chat or a person that's constantly bothering you with endless messages. You can simply mute it Just pick the chat click on its name or the name of the contact on top of the screen and select mute. You'll have an option to mute it for 8 hours a week or even a year well. I guess it has to be a pretty annoying one to pick the last option. You can always go on WhatsApp later to catch every message. You've missed plus some time and pieces irreplaceable. 13. Most Popular Contacts Interestingly enough you can also find out who out of your contacts. Do you talk to the most of this works only on iOS devices? You can do that by heading to Settings and then picking Account and storage usage . You'll see the list of all your WhatsApp contacts and groups as well as the total number of messages. You've sent and received for each one of them. Just a little bit of statistics can be quite useful right? 14. Font Styles. While we're on the topic of fonts. Font Style changing is also one of the secret features you can find on WhatsApp. You can make your messages italic and strikethrough. The algorithm is pretty much the same as with the font changing for messages. You have to put Asterix before and after your message. You can send italics messages by adding underscores and your message can also be transformed to strike through by using tilt ease. Plus you canbine these symbols by putting two or even all three symbols together. 15. Font changing. Not many people know that you can easily change the fun of your messages on WhatsApp if you're feeling so just simply put this Symbol * three times before and after your message like this ```hello``` . It's not much but it's still kind of cool right? Don't confuse it with this one though Unfortunately this symbol is available only on Android devices but not on the iOS ones. But you can always just copy and paste it if you want to try. Please Upvote. If You Find It Helpful.